Beneficial AI_x0003_Opening Keynote

Roger Penrose

**Concept Graph & Resume using Claude 3 Opus | Chat GPT4o | Llama 3:**

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human-level intelligence? 1] B --> C[AI may match cerebellums

computational power. 2] C --> D[Cerebrum: conscious thought,

cerebellum: execution. 3] A --> E[Penrose interested in Gödels

incompleteness theorems. 4] E --> F[Trusting proof system means

believing unprovable statements. 5] F --> G[Understanding transcends

formal system rules. 6] A --> H[Mathematics understanding lacks

evolutionary advantage. 7] H --> I[Humans understand infinity,

unlike computers. 8] I --> J[Induction proves propositions

for all numbers. 9] J --> K[Goodsteins theorem unprovable

but understood by humans. 10] A --> L[Understanding beyond computation,

from physical laws. 11] A --> M[General relativity simulated,

proven by waves. 12] M --> N[Schrödinger equation simulated,

but incomplete. 13] N --> O[Schrödingers cat: observed outcomes,

not superpositions. 14] O --> P[Measurements show outcomes,

implying wavefunction collapse. 15] A --> Q[Quantum mechanics and gravity

estimate superposition lifetime. 16] Q --> R[Missing quantum piece allows

non-computational consciousness. 17] A --> S[Penrose, Hameroff: microtubules

as quantum devices. 18] S --> T[Quantum effects essential to

chemistry, photosynthesis. 19] T --> U[Anesthetics inactivate microtubules,

affecting consciousness. 20] S --> V[Quantum reductions in microtubules:

proto-consciousness elements. 21] V --> W[Non-computable quantum reduction

needed for consciousness. 22] A --> X[Experiments may reveal quantum

role in consciousness. 23] class B,C,D ai class E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L math class M,N,O,P,Q,R quantum class S,T,U,V,W,X consciousness

human-level intelligence? 1] B --> C[AI may match cerebellums

computational power. 2] C --> D[Cerebrum: conscious thought,

cerebellum: execution. 3] A --> E[Penrose interested in Gödels

incompleteness theorems. 4] E --> F[Trusting proof system means

believing unprovable statements. 5] F --> G[Understanding transcends

formal system rules. 6] A --> H[Mathematics understanding lacks

evolutionary advantage. 7] H --> I[Humans understand infinity,

unlike computers. 8] I --> J[Induction proves propositions

for all numbers. 9] J --> K[Goodsteins theorem unprovable

but understood by humans. 10] A --> L[Understanding beyond computation,

from physical laws. 11] A --> M[General relativity simulated,

proven by waves. 12] M --> N[Schrödinger equation simulated,

but incomplete. 13] N --> O[Schrödingers cat: observed outcomes,

not superpositions. 14] O --> P[Measurements show outcomes,

implying wavefunction collapse. 15] A --> Q[Quantum mechanics and gravity

estimate superposition lifetime. 16] Q --> R[Missing quantum piece allows

non-computational consciousness. 17] A --> S[Penrose, Hameroff: microtubules

as quantum devices. 18] S --> T[Quantum effects essential to

chemistry, photosynthesis. 19] T --> U[Anesthetics inactivate microtubules,

affecting consciousness. 20] S --> V[Quantum reductions in microtubules:

proto-consciousness elements. 21] V --> W[Non-computable quantum reduction

needed for consciousness. 22] A --> X[Experiments may reveal quantum

role in consciousness. 23] class B,C,D ai class E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L math class M,N,O,P,Q,R quantum class S,T,U,V,W,X consciousness

**Resume: **

**1.-** AI has advanced tremendously in recent years, raising the question of whether it will reach human-level intelligence.

**2.-** The cerebellum, which controls unconscious actions and skills, may be matched by AI due to its computational power.

**3.-** The cerebrum, involved in conscious thought, is like the programmer while the cerebellum is like the program being executed.

**4.-** Penrose became interested in Gödel's incompleteness theorems, which show there are mathematical statements that can't be proven within a formal system.

**5.-** If you trust a proof system is consistent, you must also believe certain unprovable statements constructed from the system's rules.

**6.-** Understanding allows transcending the rules of a formal system, going beyond what's achievable by just applying the rules.

**7.-** Human understanding of mathematics likely did not evolve due to selective evolutionary advantage, as being a mathematician provides little survival benefit.

**8.-** Humans can understand infinity and reason about an infinite number of cases, which computers cannot genuinely do.

**9.-** Mathematical induction allows proving a proposition true for all natural numbers, demonstrating human understanding of infinitely many things.

**10.-** Goodstein's theorem, while unprovable in a certain formal system, can be understood as true by humans following its logic.

**11.-** Understanding seems to involve something beyond computation, but Penrose believes it must arise from physical laws governing the brain.

**12.-** General relativity can be accurately simulated computationally, as evidenced by gravitational wave detections matching predictions from intensive numerical simulations.

**13.-** Quantum mechanics can also be simulated by putting the Schrödinger equation on a computer, but there is a catch.

**14.-** The Schrödinger equation alone does not describe what we observe, as illustrated by Schrödinger's cat paradox with superposed alive/dead states.

**15.-** In actual measurements, we see definite outcomes, not superpositions, so something beyond the Schrödinger equation happens, often called the "collapse of the wavefunction".

**16.-** Combining quantum mechanics and gravity allows estimating the lifetime of superpositions, but the "collapse" process is not part of standard quantum theory.

**17.-** Penrose believes this missing piece in quantum mechanics, which cannot be computationally simulated, provides a gap where non-computational consciousness could arise.

**18.-** Collaborating with Stuart Hameroff, Penrose considered microtubules in neurons as possible quantum devices shielded from decoherence and leveraging subtle quantum effects.

**19.-** While quantum effects in the brain are sometimes dismissed, they are essential to chemistry and have been found in processes like photosynthesis.

**20.-** Hameroff proposes that general anesthetics reversibly inactivate microtubules, suggesting a role in consciousness rather than just neuronal signaling.

**21.-** Each quantum state reduction in microtubules may be associated with an element of "proto-consciousness" that combines to form full consciousness.

**22.-** Although skepticism exists, Penrose believes consciousness must take advantage of non-computable quantum state reduction which lies outside computational simulation.

**23.-** Experiments may shed light on the role of quantum state reduction in the brain and consciousness.

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