Knowledge Vault 3/85 - G.TEC BCI & Neurotechnology Spring School 2024 - Day 9
Hans Berger’s Resting-State EEG Alpha Rhythms after a Century
Claudio Babiloni, Sapienza University Di Roma (IT)
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Concept Graph & Resume using Claude 3 Opus | Chat GPT4 | Llama 3:

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by Adrian, Matthews, Jasper. 2] A --> D[Quantitative EEG: spectral analysis,
multi-electrode recordings. 3] A --> E[Cortical pyramidal neurons
generate alpha rhythms. 4] E --> F[Alpha from cortical-cortical,
thalamo-cortical networks. 5] E --> G[Sleep deprivation reduces
alpha source activation. 6] E --> H[Higher pre-stimulus alpha improves
visual recognition. 7] E --> I[TMS of parietal cortex
affects perceived stimuli. 8] E --> J[Recovered vegetative patients show
residual alpha activity. 9] E --> K[Long COVID: reduced alpha
in brain fog. 10] E --> L[Resting-state EEG: biomarkers
of consciousness level. 11] A --> M[Alzheimer's: tau accumulates in
medial temporal, brainstem. 12] M --> N[Alzheimer's progression: amyloidosis,
tau, cognitive deficits. 13] M --> O[Alzheimer's MCI: less alpha,
more delta activity. 14] M --> P[Some Alzheimer's MCI: epileptiform
EEG, higher delta. 15] M --> Q[Alzheimer's: amyloid degenerates
cholinergic systems. 16] M --> R[Alzheimer's MCI: cholinergic lesions,
less alpha activity. 17] A --> S[EEG biomarkers: ascending
neuromodulation functionality. 18] S --> T[Alpha: cortico-cortical, thalamo-cortical,
cholinergic systems. 19] S --> U[EEG biomarkers: vigilance,
consciousness in brain diseases. 20] A --> V[Sleep deprivation study: iLoreta
estimated limbic sources. 21] A --> W[Alpha focused: clear
power density peaks. 22] A --> X[Dementia improvement: lifestyle changes. 23] A --> Y[EEG not for Alzheimer's diagnosis,
provides vigilance biomarkers. 24] A --> Z[Journalists: EEG for
selecting peaceful horses. 25] A --> AA[Niedermeyer had fake
Berger-signed picture. 26] A --> AB[Controversy over Berger's
character, politics. 27] A --> AC[Focus on Berger's
invaluable EEG discovery. 28] A --> AD[Babiloni thanks audience
for attention. 29] A --> AE[Moderator thanks Babiloni,
ends session. 30] class A,B,C,AD,AE babiloni; class D,L,S,T,U,V,W,Y eeg; class E,F,G,H,I,J,K,T,W alpha; class M,N,O,P,Q,R,X,Y alzheimers; class Z,AA,AB,AC misc;


1.- Claudio Babiloni discusses the discovery of human EEG by Hans Berger in 1924, who termed alpha and beta waves.

2.- Berger's findings were confirmed by Nobel Prize winner Adrian and colleague Matthews in 1934, and by Jasper in 1935.

3.- Quantitative EEG analysis was introduced using spectral analysis by fast Fourier transform and multi-electrode recordings.

4.- Cortical pyramidal neurons are the generators of EEG alpha rhythms due to their spatial orientation of dendrites.

5.- Fernando Lopez da Silva demonstrated that alpha rhythms derive from cortical-cortical and thalamo-cortical networks using dog experiments.

6.- Sleep deprivation reduces cortical source activation of alpha rhythms, capturing differences in vigilance before and after deprivation.

7.- Higher pre-stimulus alpha source activity in occipital, parietal and premotor areas allows better recognition of visual stimuli.

8.- TMS of parietal cortex reduces the number of perceived stimuli, showing its causal role in primary consciousness.

9.- Persistent vegetative state patients who recover consciousness show residual alpha source activity compared to those who don't.

10.- Long COVID patients with more brain fog symptoms show reduced alpha source activity in parietal, occipital and temporal regions.

11.- Resting-state EEG can provide biomarkers of consciousness level, relevant for evaluating long COVID brain fog and consciousness disorders.

12.- In Alzheimer's disease, tau protein accumulates in medial temporal cortex and brainstem, even in preclinical stages without cognitive deficits.

13.- Progression of Alzheimer's involves interaction between amyloidosis and tau protein, leading to cognitive deficits and dementia.

14.- Alzheimer's patients with mild cognitive impairment show less alpha and more delta source activity compared to non-Alzheimer's MCI.

15.- Some Alzheimer's MCI patients show epileptiform EEG activity, with higher delta source activity in occipital and temporal regions.

16.- Amyloid accumulation in Alzheimer's can degenerate cholinergic systems regulating brain arousal and attention.

17.- Alzheimer's MCI patients with more cholinergic tract lesions have less alpha source activity than those with less impairment.

18.- Resting-state EEG biomarkers reflect the functionality of ascending neuromodulation systems using acetylcholine and dopamine.

19.- Alpha rhythms derive from cortico-cortical, thalamo-cortical networks and ascending cholinergic systems.

20.- Resting-state EEG biomarkers can indicate vigilance and consciousness levels in patients with brain diseases.

21.- In the sleep deprivation study, cortical sources of EEG in limbic regions were estimated using the iLoreta software.

22.- Alpha rhythms are focused on because they show clear peaks in the power density spectrum compared to less clear beta/gamma.

23.- To improve dementia, lifestyle changes like physical activity, healthy diet, social engagement and mental stimulation are important.

24.- Current guidelines don't indicate EEG for Alzheimer's diagnosis; amyloid/tau measurements are needed. But EEG can provide vigilance biomarkers.

25.- Some journalists historically suggested using EEG to select peaceful horses, but this claim is not scientifically validated.

26.- Ernst Niedermeyer, a Johns Hopkins professor, had a picture signed by himself that he pretended was from Hans Berger.

27.- There are controversial views about Hans Berger's personal character and political affiliations.

28.- The main focus should be on Berger's invaluable contribution of discovering human EEG.

29.- Babiloni concludes by thanking the audience for their attention to his presentation celebrating 100 years of human EEG.

30.- The moderator thanks Babiloni for the insightful presentation and ends the session.

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