Knowledge Vault 3/74 - G.TEC BCI & Neurotechnology Spring School 2024 - Day 8
Vox per machina: BCI communication in ALS, stroke and deep coma
Benjamin Svejgaard Jørgensen, Aalborg Universitetshospital (DK)
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Concept Graph & Resume using Claude 3 Opus | Chat GPT4 | Llama 3:

graph LR classDef speech fill:#f9d4d4, font-weight:bold, font-size:14px; classDef brainspeech fill:#d4f9d4, font-weight:bold, font-size:14px; classDef bci fill:#d4d4f9, font-weight:bold, font-size:14px; classDef research fill:#f9f9d4, font-weight:bold, font-size:14px; classDef challenges fill:#f9d4f9, font-weight:bold, font-size:14px; A[Benjamin Svejgaard] --> B[Speech vital. Loss devastating. 1] A --> C[Speech: idea, words, articulation. 2] A --> D[Disorders impair/eliminate speech. 3] D --> E[Locked-in author blinked book. 4] A --> F[Assistive devices: boards to BCIs. 5] F --> G[Level 1-analog, 2-motor, 3-brain. 6] F --> H[P300 EEG speller slow. 7] F --> I[Invasive BCIs enable 'coma' communication. 8] I --> J[BCIs: implant, detect, analyze, control. 9] A --> K[EEG: 1924-cursor-robotics-AI. 10] A --> L[Aalborg: Neurotechnology, Rehab, Robotics centers. 11] A --> M[Neuralink: chip, robot, human trials. 12] M --> N[Early BCIs: computers, arms, Obama. 13] A --> O[Synchron: Stentrode, stent, catheter, veins. 19] O --> P[Studies: 62-78 wpm speech, game-changer. 15] A --> Q[Challenges: safety, cost, regulation, ethics. 16] Q --> R[Policies, security key before enhancement. 17] A --> S[Progress: implants, AI. Hurdles remain. 18] O --> T[Stentrode avoids stroke risk. 19] A --> U[BCI privacy: cybersecurity, thought control. 20] U --> V[BCIs need training, effort, not casual. 21] class A,B,C,D,E speech; class F,G,H brainspeech; class I,J,M,N,O,P,T bci; class K,L research; class Q,R,S,U,V challenges;


1.- Speech is essential for communication and interaction. Losing the ability to speak is devastating for patients.

2.- Speech requires an idea from the cerebral cortex, formation into words in Broca's area, then articulation by mouth/throat.

3.- Neurological disorders like ALS, stroke, and locked-in syndrome can impair or eliminate the ability to speak.

4.- Jean-Dominique Bauby wrote a book about his locked-in experience by blinking to select letters as they were read aloud.

5.- Assistive speech devices range from simple letter boards to cursor/joystick systems to direct brain interfaces.

6.- Level 1 analog devices require no equipment. Level 2 use motor input. Level 3 directly interface with the brain.

7.- P300 speller uses EEG to detect which letter patient is looking at, but is slow (3-4 words/min).

8.- Invasive BCIs can enable communication for minimally conscious "coma" patients by detecting neural activity related to speech.

9.- BCI works by implanting electrodes that detect electrical brain signals, analyzing the signals, then translating to control external devices.

10.- EEG research began in 1924. By 1970s it controlled cursors. 2000s saw robotic control. 2020s bring AI acceleration.

11.- Two main BCI research centers in Aalborg - Center for Neurotechnology and Rehab, and RE-ROP Center for robotics.

12.- Neuralink is developing an implantable BCI chip and robotic surgery system, currently in human trials for safety and efficacy.

13.- Several early BCI users have controlled computers and robotic arms, including shaking hands with President Obama.

14.- Synchron has an innovative stent-based BCI called Stentrode implanted in cerebral veins via catheter, without open-brain surgery.

15.- Recent studies decoded speech at 62-78 words per minute using invasive BCIs and AI, a potential game-changer for paralyzed patients.

16.- Challenges remain before BCIs are widely available - safety, efficacy, cost, regulation, data security, and philosophical questions.

17.- Robust ethical policies and secure design of hardware/software are essential before commercializing brain implants for enhancement rather than treatment.

18.- In summary, speech BCI is progressing rapidly with invasive implants and AI, but must address practical and ethical hurdles.

19.- Stentrode is implanted in cerebral veins or venous sinuses to avoid risk of causing stroke from arterial implantation.

20.- Privacy with BCIs involves both cybersecurity of transmitted data and ability to control what inner thoughts are decoded.

21.- Current BCIs require user training and conscious effort to project the correct thought patterns, not casually reading passing thoughts.

Knowledge Vault built byDavid Vivancos 2024