Knowledge Vault 3/51 - G.TEC BCI & Neurotechnology Spring School 2024 - Day 4
Wearable BCIs and Virtual Reality: neuroergonomics meets the metaverse
Tiago Falk, INRS-EMT (CA)
<Resume Image >

Concept Graph & Resume using Claude 3 Opus | Chat GPT4 | Llama 3:

graph LR classDef falk fill:#f9d4d4, font-weight:bold, font-size:14px; classDef multisensory fill:#d4f9d4, font-weight:bold, font-size:14px; classDef vr fill:#d4d4f9, font-weight:bold, font-size:14px; classDef eeg fill:#f9f9d4, font-weight:bold, font-size:14px; classDef future fill:#f9d4f9, font-weight:bold, font-size:14px; A[Tiago Falk] --> B[Falk: biosignal features
update VR environments. 1] A --> C[Mental state, blinks, heart rate
regulate VR by stress. 2] C --> D[EEG estimates gaze
80% accuracy, 10 error. 3] C --> E[Remote at-home VR studies
with sanitizable hardware. 4] E --> F[Half-Life: Alyx at-home
EEG, surveys, game correlates. 5] F --> G[Time loss: head movement,
EEG, heart rate variability. 6] A --> H[Multisensory VR impact on
presence, immersion, realism, engagement. 7] H --> I[Gaming: senses boost factors,
no cybersickness, EEG changes. 8] H --> J[Nature: senses, smell, heat
boost relaxation, self-reports, physiology. 9] J --> K[Nurses de-stress in
multisensory VR nature breaks. 10] J --> L[PTSD: 12 VR nature
sessions, heart, cognition gains. 11] L --> M[EEG predicts VR PTSD
intervention benefit after 5. 12] H --> N[Multisensory VR primes
motor imagery BCI performance. 13] N --> O[Orange grasp, smell in VR
boosts imagery BCI vs visual-only. 14] N --> P[Multisensory stimuli pre-imagery
increases spatial filter weights. 15] A --> Q[Future: neural synchrony in
multi-user VR/AR, privacy concerns. 16] A --> R[Passive BCI: signal processing,
experimental design, psychology, ML. 17] A --> S[Low-cost EEG-VR: healthcare,
entertainment, education, industry potential. 18] A --> T[VR pod: 300 essential oil smells. 19] A --> U[PTSD: ECG, EEG analysis,
no other sensors used. 20] U --> V[EEG could enhance VR
therapy vs commercial solutions. 21] U --> W[Relaxing VR memories vs
trauma-trigger exposure therapy. 22] A --> X[Half-Life: Alyx research
needed no special permissions. 23] A --> Y[Focus: stimuli alter
mental state, not brain stimulation. 24] A --> Z[Smell-visual mismatch in VR
breaks immersion, use generic labels. 25] Z --> AA[Smells labeled generically
to avoid visual mismatch. 26] Z --> AB[Smell-visual congruency
key for realistic immersion. 27] AB --> AC[Incongruent smells end
VR prematurely. 28] AB --> AD[Avoid specific smell labels,
perceptions vary individually. 29] A --> AE[Future potential: VR/AR,
passive BCI, multisensory, hyperscanning. 30] class A,B falk; class H,I,J,K,N,O,P,Z,AA,AB,AC,AD multisensory; class C,D,E,F,G,L,M,U,V,W,X vr; class Q,R,S,T,Y eeg; class AE future;


1.- Tiago Falk's research involves building tools to extract features from biosignals in real-time to update virtual environments or provide biofeedback.

2.- In 2018, they could overlay mental state, blink rates, heart rates in real-time to regulate the VR environment based on stress levels.

3.- They detected eye movements from EEG headset signals to estimate gaze direction with 80% accuracy and 10 degrees of error.

4.- In 2020, they redesigned hardware to be embedded, sanitizable, allowing completely remote at-home studies during pandemic lockdowns.

5.- They ran an at-home study with Half-Life: Alyx VR game, measuring EEG and sending surveys, finding correlates with game experience.

6.- Perception of time loss correlated with a combination of head movements, EEG features, and heart rate variability, indicating high engagement.

7.- They studied the impact of stimulating multiple senses (heat, vibration, wind, smell) on presence, immersion, realism, engagement, and overall experience.

8.- In VR gaming, stimulating more senses increased all those factors without affecting cybersickness. EEG showed more openness and pleasant feelings.

9.- In VR nature experiences, stimulating more senses, especially smell and heat, increased relaxation. Effects seen in self-reports and physiological signals.

10.- They tested allowing hospital nurses to de-stress in VR nature environments on breaks, finding improved relaxation with multisensory stimulation.

11.- In a study with 30 PTSD patients, 12 VR nature sessions improved heart rate variability, processing speed, attention and memory.

12.- EEG signatures after 5 sessions could predict if a patient would benefit from the VR PTSD intervention or not.

13.- They tested if multisensory VR could prime and improve subsequent motor imagery BCI performance in naïve users.

14.- Physically grasping and smelling oranges in VR right before imagined grasping boosted motor imagery BCI accuracy more than visual-only.

15.- Spatial filter weights increased more when multisensory stimulation happened right before the motor imagery, indicating priming of relevant brain activity.

16.- Future work will examine neural synchrony between multiple users socializing in VR/AR, but this raises privacy and security concerns.

17.- Effective passive BCIs require expertise in signal processing, experimental design, psychology, and machine learning, not just applying ML to raw data.

18.- Low-cost EEG-VR development is very feasible. There are many potential healthcare, entertainment, education, and industrial applications to still be explored.

19.- Companies can create virtually any requested smell. Their multisensory VR pod has 300 smell options made from essential oils.

20.- For the PTSD study, they measured ECG and are analyzing EEG, but did not use other sensors.

21.- Adding EEG measurement could enhance VR therapy compared to current commercial VR therapy solutions by providing medical-grade data.

22.- Exposure therapy for PTSD that recreates trauma-related triggers in VR is common, but they instead provided positive relaxing VR memories.

23.- No special permissions were needed to use the VR game Half-Life: Alyx in their research.

24.- They focus on altering mental state through stimuli rather than direct brain stimulation.

25.- Mismatches between visuals and smells in VR can break immersion. Labels like "orange" smell were changed to "citrus" to avoid this.

26.- The company providing smells for their research no longer uses specific labels to avoid potential mismatches with visuals.

27.- Having congruency between smells and visuals is important for VR experiences to feel realistic and immersive.

28.- Incongruent smells, like a New York beach smell with Caribbean beach visuals, caused people to prematurely end the VR experience.

29.- One person's "orange" smell might be perceived as "lemon" by someone else, so avoiding specific labels helps prevent jarring mismatches.

30.- There is a lot of future research potential at the intersection of VR/AR, passive BCIs, multisensory stimulation, and hyperscanning.

Knowledge Vault built byDavid Vivancos 2024